Kluyveromyces marxianus, an Attractive Yeast for Ethanolic Fermentation in the Presence of Imidazolium Ionic Liquids

Abstract : Imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) are promising solvents for lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) pretreatment and allow the achievement of higher ethanolic yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanolic fermentation. However, residual ILs entrapped in pretreated biomass are often toxic for fermentative microorganisms, but interaction mechanisms between ILs and cells are still unknown. Here we studied the effects of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Emim][OAc] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylphosphonate [Emim][MeO(H)PO 2 ] on Kluyveromyces marxianus, a thermotolerant ethanologenic yeast. Morphological impacts induced by ILs on K. marxianus were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis and showed wrinkled, softened, and holed shapes. In Yeast-Malt-Dextrose (YMD) medium, K. marxianus tolerated IL additions up to 2% for [Emim][OAc] and 6% for [Emim][MeO(H)PO 2 ]. Below these thresholds, some IL concentrations enhanced ethanolic yields up to +34% by switching the metabolic status from respiratory to fermentative. Finally, K. marxianus fermentation was applied on several substrates pretreated with [Emim][OAc] or [Emim][MeO(H)PO 2 ] and enzymatically hydrolyzed: a model long fiber cellulose and two industrial LCBs, softwood (spruce) and hardwood (oak) sawdusts. The maximum ethanolic yields obtained were 1.8 to 3.9 times higher when substrates were pretreated with imidazolium ILs. Therefore K. marxianus is an interesting fermentative yeast in a second-generation bioethanol process implying IL pretreatment.
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Nasir Mehmood, Ranim Alayoubi, Eric Husson, Cédric Jacquard, Jochen Büchs, et al.. Kluyveromyces marxianus, an Attractive Yeast for Ethanolic Fermentation in the Presence of Imidazolium Ionic Liquids. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, MDPI, 2018, 19 (3), pp.887. ⟨10.3390/ijms19030887⟩. ⟨hal-01988874⟩

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